Bamfield featured tonight on CBC’s Still Standing

by Amanda Kahn

Jeff Harris in Bamfield

Jonny Harris showcased Bamfield, B.C. in an episode of Still Standing, airing tonight at 9:30 PM PST. Image linked from the website of Still Standing.

In 30 minutes, the town of Bamfield will be featured on CBC’s comedy show Still Standing.  Jonny Harris visited Bamfield and met its wonderful residents, plus got a tour of the marine station.  You can watch the show online here.

Still Standing

Dr. Louis Druehl is one of many Bamfielders featured in Still Standing. Image from the Still Standing Facebook page.

Long carapace spines help larval crabs swim

by Anna Smith and Amanda Kahn

We are used to seeing crabs scuttling across the seafloor or scrambling under rocks in the intertidal zone, but before they settle on the seabed they have larval stages that live in the water column as plankton.  Zoeae (pronounced zoe-EE-uh) and megalopae (MEG-uh-lope-ee) drift through the water, eating food and eventually metamorphosing into bottom-dwelling crabs.

Crab life cycle stages

Life cycle stages of a crab: an egg hatches into swimming zoea stages, then to a megalopa, then metamorphoses into a benthic juvenile and adult crab. Image credit: A Snail’s Odyssey

For her class project in Crustacean Biology (a summer course taught in 2012), Anna Smith worked with instructor Greg Jensen to study how swimming is accomplished by the zoeae of a porcelain crab, Petrolisthes cinctipes. Most crab larvae swim vertically in the water column and are fairly poor swimmers. These zoeae are swept along with the currents and are often taken out to sea with no hope of returning to the shore to settle. Check out the video below to see how zoeae of most crab species move in the water.

Most crab zoeae have sharply pointed spines projecting from their carapace, as pictured below. Previous studies have found these spines to be connected with predator avoidance by making the larvae harder to swallow. The zoeae of porcelain crabs, however, have unusually long spines sticking out the front and back of the carapace. They are also much stronger swimmers than zoeae of many crab species, enabling them to stay close to shore and avoid being swept away from settling grounds. These zoeae swim horizontally through the water column and exhibit much more directional control than most crab zoeae. Anna studied whether the elongated spines of porcelain crabs were connected to their unique swimming by studying their swimming ability with both spines intact, then removed the front, back, or all spines to see how their swimming changed.

Zoea of a porcelain crab

Zoea of a porcelain crab. Image credit: Greg Jensen 2015. This image is from his new book, Crabs and Shrimps of the Pacific Northwest.

The spines were in fact very important to the swimming ability of the zoeae.  Zoeae who had their front (anterior) spine removed could not maintain constant depth in the water.  Zoeae who had their posterior spines removed could not swim backwards or change directions easily and with both front and back spines removed the zoeae could not swim at all. This led Anna and Greg to conclude that the spines contribute to the superior swimming ability of porcelain crab zoeae.

Why is this important? This suggests that the carapace spines are not only used as physical protection from predators, as previously suggested, but also contribute to their survival in other ways. Anna and Greg also hypothesize that the ability to better control direction and water column depth helps the zoeae navigate currents and stay close to shore and may explain their limited dispersal offshore.

Citation:

Smith, AE, and GC Jensen (2015). The role of carapace spines in the swimming behavior of porcelain crab zoeae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae).  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 471:175-179.

If you want to learn more about the crabs and shrimps along our coast, check out Greg Jensen’s new crustacean guide Crabs and Shrimps of the Pacific Northwest.

To learn more about this course and others offered at BMSC, check out the University Programs website.

Climate change and the 5 stages of grief

by Amanda Kahn

In 1969, Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross outlined 5 stages of grief in her book On Death and Dying to help people cope with grief from the loss of a loved one or news of their own terminal illness.  Psychologists later noted “that this emotional cycle was not exclusive just to the terminally ill, but also other people who were affected by bad news, such as losing their jobs or otherwise being negatively affected by change” (changingminds.org).

How does this tie in to climate change or other new, major ideas and why might it be helpful to keep these 5 stages in mind?  Well, when I thought about my own thought progression, the changing perspectives of the scientific community, and then how the media and public see climate change, I realized that we’ve been walking through the 5 stages of grief, also called the Kübler-Ross Grief cycle.  Quotations below all come from a great summary of the Kübler-Ross Grief Cycle from changingminds.org.

There are 5 major stages that vary between being active or passive (with a few extras sometimes thrown in, as seen in the diagram below).  During active stages, a person is likely to do something/be pushed into action (whether correct or misdirected).  During passive stages, a person usually is stuck/unable to act as needed.  The five stages are: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

Kubler-Ross grief cycle

The Kubler-Ross extended grief cycle. Credit: ChangingMinds.org

Denial

Consensus about climate change

Public perception versus actual consensus in the scientific community regarding climate change. Credit: SkepticalScience.com

The first stage is a transitional stage of shock followed quickly by denial, where people pretend that no news has been given.  “They effectively close their eyes to any evidence and pretend that nothing has happened.”  When I first read about climate change, I thought the projections must be overestimates, and that we wouldn’t allow ourselves to stay on a dangerous trajectory.  Some of the general public and news media seem stuck in this denial phase, preferring to stir up controversy or conflict where there is none in the scientific community.  Take note: this is a brilliant strategy for preventing or avoiding change since denial is one of the passive phases–no one acts if they can find a nugget of doubt that says that they do not have to.  This is why gas companies, for example, might be interested in expressing doubts about climate change.

Contributions to climate change

Bar graph showing % contribution of humans versus natural sources to climate change over the past 50-65 years. Different colors of bars indicate different climate models run. Credit: SkepticalScience.com

Anger

Denial eventually transitions to anger and frustration.  A person might try to blame anyone or anything for the change, except for him/herself.  I was frustrated and blamed everything that emitted greenhouse gases–industries, cows, cars, volcanoes–but couldn’t think clearly about how I fit into things.  Interestingly, the anger and denial stages can cycle back and forth, getting stuck in a loop.

Human contributions to climate change

Predicted human contributions to climate change in 2020 and 2100. Credit: NASA/GISS

Bargaining

After getting over anger, a person begins to realize that the inevitable is happening.  They begin “seeking ways to avoid having the bad thing happen. Bargaining is thus a vain expression of hope that the bad news is reversible.”

Depression

This phase is easy to get stuck into.  “The inevitability of the news eventually…sinks in and the person reluctantly accepts that it is going to happen…In this deep depression, they see only a horrible end with nothing beyond it. In turning in towards themselves, they turn away from any solution and any help that others can give them.”  “In this phase, the person may now be blaming themselves as they take responsibility for their action where something has gone wrong.”  In 2008, I attended the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Currents Symposium.  At that time, climate change was just coalescing into a well accepted theory within my field’s small pocket of the scientific community, and the conference was filled with depressing reports and projections of what was to come.  Looking back, I felt that the scientific community was in that state of depression.

Acceptance

“Acceptance is typically visible by people taking ownership both for themselves and their actions. They start to do things and take note of the results, and then changing their actions in response. They will appear increasingly happier and more content as they find their way forward.”  By 2010, the research presented at the same symposium was different.  The focus of the research changed, even though the projections and ideas about climate change had not. Instead of doom-and-gloom predictions, there were people presenting research on carbon-neutral energy, technology to sequester carbon into building materials, and adaptive ways to lessen our contributions to, and the impacts of, climate change.  It was a call to action–research was being done to figure out how to live on our changing planet and to temper human impacts.  This is the most effective, active phase of the grief cycle and is where everyone needs to be: willing to change, find creative ways to lessen our impact, and accept responsibility in a human role in the situation.

My acceptance phase was similar to the views at the symposium.  I was depressed about it until I accepted that it’s inevitable given what we’ve already emitted, but it doesn’t have to be something I can do nothing about.  The climate is changing and carbon emissions from humans are responsible, but it’s possible to change what emissions are being put out. the way we emit, and the research and technological energy we put into dealing with it.  When media and the general public move from the passive phases of denial and depression into the active phase of acceptance, we’ll become the responsive, adaptable, innovative problem-solvers we need to be to live in a changing world.

Where do you fall in this cycle?  Have you experienced this same progression of thoughts, either relating to climate change or some other concept or idea?  Write them in the comments below.

Please remember that this was a thought exercise based on my personal observations and experiences.  This isn’t the post or the place to argue the validity of climate science–it is about the thought progression of people accepting a new idea that was at one time controversial.

Ucluelet Aquarium grand re-opening March 15

by Amanda Kahn

The Ucluelet Aquarium, across Barkley Sound from Bamfield, is re-opening its doors for another summer season on Saturday, March 15 at 12 noon.  The aquarium displays local marine life of the Pacific Northwest with the distinction of being one of the few “catch-and-release” aquaria in the world.  Admission on opening day is by donation.

The aquarium will be open on Saturday from 12 PM until 5 PM, then will begin regular hours of 10 AM to 5 PM until the summer (when they will stay open until 6 PM).  Check their website for current hours and rates.

Touch tanks at the Ucluelet Aquarium

Touch tanks at the Ucluelet Aquarium. Credit: Ucluelet Aquarium Society.

Registration open for “Field Skills for Undergraduates” 2014

by Amanda Kahn

What I got from my undergraduate degree was a lot of knowledge about biology but not a lot of hands-on skills.  I got those from taking field courses and working as a research assistant.  BMSC has just opened registration for a field skills training course, which will run from February 8-11 and 15-18, 2014.  You’ll learn field skills that will make you more competitive when hunting for jobs as a summer field assistant plus you’ll meet some folks at BMSC who can help you find those opportunities.  Check out the flyer below and visit the BMSC web page for the course for registration information.

field-skills-2014-poster

New article about glass sponge reefs

By Amanda Kahn

Glass sponges are in the news!  A lot lately…  This is fine by me–the more we all know about these amazing deepwater animals, the better.  Maybe one day I’ll have a conversation with a stranger that doesn’t involve me explaining that glass sponges are not the same as “sponges used for scrubbing wine glasses” (though there is such a thing).

Glass Castles in the Sea
Reef-building sponges are giving up their long-held secrets.

by Cheryl Lyn Dybas
Published in Natural History magazine

Anyway, check out the article, which features a lot of the research done by the Leys Lab at the University of Alberta (with some of the work done at BMSC), including how they feed, what they eat, how and where reefs form, how humans may impact them, and why CPAWS-BC is pushing to have them considered for protection.

Studying the globally unique glass sponge reefs

By Amanda Kahn

[Cross-posted on the Students Ensuring our Oceans’ Future blog.]

One month ago, we were busy in the lab at the University of Alberta preparing and calibrating instruments, gathering GPS waypoints, and preparing dive plans. Three weeks ago, we drove and flew to Vancouver Island with our equipment and plans. Two weeks ago, we boarded a ship to study the glass sponge reefs in the Strait of Georgia in B.C.

CCGS Vector

Heading out on CCGS Vector, our home away from home. Credit: A Kahn 2013

The main reef we were studying on this trip was on Fraser Ridge. If you drained the water from the SoG, you’d be able to see the ridge and the reef about 14 km away from Vancouver. Fraser Ridge reef is too deep for us to study directly by scuba (150 to 180 meters deep), so instead we study it with the help of the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) ROPOS. ROPOS is piloted and run by the Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility (CSSF) and functions as our eyes and hands underwater.

ROV ROPOS

ROPOS, our eyes and hands underwater. Credit: A Kahn 2013

With those eyes and hands, we studied the energy use and water pumping capacity of the glass sponges that build the reef. Glass sponges are really amazing animals—they can move huge amounts of water through their bodies, which are basically modified to be amazing filters. 9,000 liters of water can pass through a single sponge osculum (the “chimney” that water is released from by the sponge) each day! And from that, the glass sponges can feed on tiny particles, especially bacteria. This is pretty unique among animals—most other animals that feed on particles suspended in the water (called “suspension feeders”) can only capture particles that are larger by 10 times or more.  We did a lot of great science while on board the ship, and I’m now at the field station in Bamfield, British Columbia, to work with other sponges.  We will all spend the winter back in Edmonton working up the samples and data collected from this trip.

Glass sponge reef

Glass sponges in a reef–check out all of those oscula! Credit: CSSF 2011

I’m happy to be a part of SEOF because I can feel connected to other folks who are near the ocean full-time, can ask questions about logistics before I arrive, etc.  I’m the regional representative for Alberta and in this post wanted to show that being far from the ocean does not mean that we cannot have access to marine animals or study ocean-related issues.  Logistics may be more tricky than driving down to beach for the weekend to do some intertidal sampling, but it’s definitely doable and totally worthwhile.  Contact me if you have questions about the reefs or if you’re in Alberta and have questions about how you can get involved in the marine science community across Canada.

To learn more about the reefs, check out these videos, compiled by Sameena Sherman, a student from our lab:

River plumes and extra terrestrial food. Or, why the Strait of Georgia can support so much life

by Amanda Kahn

First of all, this post is about extra, or supplemental, terrestrial (meaning land-based, not ocean-based) food–not extra-terrestrial food, which is material for other blogs.

The Strait of Georgia lies between Vancouver Island, where Bamfield is (on its west coast), and mainland British Columbia.  It is a major waterway for ships and is heavily influenced and used by humans through recreation, diving, boating, tide-pooling, discharges, etc., but it’s also a food- and nutrient-rich habitat for all sorts of animals.  It gets a near-equal input of carbon (a measure of food since carbon is necessary for all living things) from ocean-driven plankton blooms as from land-based sources (Johannessen et al. 2003).  I took some photos of one of the major sources of land-based carbon on a recent flight back to Edmonton from Bamfield.

Fraser River plume

Looking out from Vancouver Island toward the mainland, two light-colored plumes in the water indicate something different about the water there. Indeed, these colors arise from sediment and plankton blooms in water coming from the land. In the top right is a large plume that extended far beyond this photo. It comes from the Fraser River. Credit: A Kahn 2013

In the picture above, you can see different colors in the water. The colors result from suspended sediments and blooms of plankton arising from the water’s interactions with land. Everywhere near the coast gets inputs from land, whether from rocks, sediments, and sand right along the coast becoming suspended or dissolved in the water or from rivers flowing in with suspended sediments, nutrients, phytoplankton, and bacteria from farther inland. The Fraser River is the largest source of freshwater and sediments to the Strait of Georgia–up to 73% of the freshwater and 64% of particles (Johannessen et al. 2003). It is responsible for the plume filling much of the strait, in the upper right of the photo above. Near land, there can also be mixing, as shown in the bottom left of the photo above and zoomed in on the photo below.

Nearshore sediment

Looking south, the Fraser River plume (left) and the mixing near islands near Vancouver Island (right) create different-colored plumes of water. Credit: A Kahn 2013

So why does the Fraser River plume extend so much farther than the non-river areas? While part of it involves the obvious water movement of rivers, there’s plenty of wave action on coastlines. It’s related to something I mentioned before–that the Fraser River is the source of 73% of the freshwater coming into the Strait of Georgia. Fresh water is less dense than salt water so it floats on the surface.  Its different density also means it doesn’t mix very well with seawater so it ends up spreading out along the surface of the water.  If you put an instrument in the water that measures salinity, such as a CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth sensor), you’ll see a drop in salinity from the river.

The salinity drops considerably within the plume, indicative of the freshwater coming in from the Fraser River.  Credit: Ocean Networks Canada, via Flickr.

The water that comes in with the Fraser River is full of suspended sediments and plankton, turning the water a different color. If you look out on the Strait of Georgia from land during spring and early summer, the peak of the “freshet” (when snowmelt swells the Fraser River and creates the strongest plume), you’ll see water that is green or murky brown relative to more oceanic water. Sediments from the river settle slowly but bring in with them macronutrients (especially silica; Treguer et al. 2013) and micronutrients such as iron–both of which are needed for plankton to grow. As plankton grow, they turn the water’s color from deep blue to a brown, green, or milky blue, depending on the dominant plankton types.

Water color changes dramatically near the edge of the Fraser River plume.  Credit: Kevin Bartlett; via Ocean Networks Canada and Flickr

As plankton grow, they form the basis of a food web for grazers and predators. These terrestrial inputs of food are a big reason why coastal areas have higher concentrations of plankton, and as a result higher numbers and diversity of animals, compared to open ocean areas.  To learn more about research on the Fraser River plume, check out this post from Ocean Networks Canada.

Active Pass

Active Pass. Credit: A Kahn 2013

References
Johannessen, S. ., R. . Macdonald, and D. . Paton. 2003. A sediment and organic carbon budget for the greater Strait of Georgia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56:845–860.

Tréguer, P. J., and C. L. De La Rocha. 2013. The World Ocean Silica Cycle. Annual Review of Marine Science 5:477–501.